Nephrology is the branch of medicine and research that deals with the physiology and diseases of the kidneys.
The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) also known as the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a multi-hormonal system that coordinates a variety of physiological processes for proper regulation of blood volume and pressure.
RAAS regulates sodium and water absorption in the kidney, thus directly having an impact on systemic blood pressure.
Typically, RAAS is activated when there is a drop in blood pressure (reduced blood volume) to increase water and electrolyte reabsorption in the kidney; which compensates for the drop in blood volume, thus increasing blood pressure.
When renin is released into the blood, it acts upon a circulating substrate, angiotensinogen, that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to form the decapeptide angiotensin I. Vascular endothelium, particularly in the lungs, has an enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), that cleaves off two amino acids to form the octapeptide, angiotensin II (AII), although many other tissues in the body (heart, brain, vascular) also can form AII.
The one-dimensional standard of kidney disease detection is incompatible with the complexity of renal pathology. The diagnosis of kidney disease has largely focused on glomerular filtration, while assessment of kidney tubular health has notably been absent. Kidney tubular cells undergo a cascade of cellular responses that result in the production and accumulation of low-molecular-weight proteins in the urine and systemic circulation. Recent advancements in molecular analysis and proteomics have allowed the identification and quantification of these proteins as biomarkers for researching and characterizing kidney diseases.
This category is comprised of unique biomarker ELISA kits that support research in the broad spectrum of acute to chronic kidney diseases.